Get a one-day recipe for diabetic patients easily in three steps! Would you like to try it?
Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset diabetes, usually occurs after the age of 35, accounting for more than 90% of diabetic patients. Most types of type 2 diabetes have a slow onset. The symptoms of “three more and one less” are mild or atypical, and may not have any symptoms in the early stage, but have a greater relationship with eating habits. The scientific diet of diabetic patients can have a multiplier effect on blood sugar control. Today I will teach you how to easily formulate diets for diabetic patients.
The first step is to learn to calculate the total calories required per day
One of the dietary principles of diabetics is to control the intake of total calories, so as to achieve and maintain the body weight at an ideal or appropriate level. If the weight exceeds the standard, the energy intake should be controlled, and if the weight does not reach the standard, the body weight should be increased reasonably. Therefore, before appointing a one-day recipe, we must first figure out the energy value that is not required, and determine the daily energy supply according to personal height, weight, age and labor intensity, combined with the disease and nutritional status.
Case: A diabetic patient with no complications, 66 years old, retired, 170 cm tall, with an actual weight of 80 kg. Usually eat at home, the rest of the indicators are normal, mainly light manual labor.
(1) Judge whether overweight: Calculate the standard weight. 170-105 = 65 (kg)
Male: Standard weight (kg) = height (cm) -105
Female: Standard weight (kg) = height (cm)-100
(2) Determine whether you are obese or thin. The actual weight is 80 kg, more than 20% of the standard weight, and it is obese.
Obesity = (existing weight-standard weight) / standard weight * 100% (obesity is normal in the upper and lower 10% range, less than 15% is called weight loss, more than 10% of the standard weight is overweight, and more than 20% of the standard weight Are obese).
(3) Find the energy coefficient according to labor intensity. The patient is light manual labor, according to the weight and the strength of the antiques, the calorie per kilogram of standard body weight is 20-25 kcal. We calculate by 25 kcal, 25 * 65 = 1625 kcal. (Note: The standard weight is used here, not the actual weight of the patient)
4) Adjust the energy value according to age. Those over the age of 50 years have lower basal metabolic rate and reduced energy requirements. Therefore, for every additional 10 years of age, the total energy will be reduced by 10% compared with the standard value. The patient is 65 years old and his daily energy intake is reduced by about 15%, or about 1400 kcal.
Step 2 Energy distribution for three meals a day
Diabetes patients have strict restrictions on the energy intake of each meal. All three meals of energy should be distributed according to the total energy of each day to achieve regular quantification. You can have 3-6 meals a day, eat less and eat more meals, reduce the fluctuation of blood sugar as much as possible, effectively control blood sugar, and each meal time is relatively short, it is not easy to appear hypoglycemia.
Breakfast, lunch and dinner can be distributed according to the ratio of 1: 2: 2, and can also be distributed according to the ratio of 1: 1: 1. If there is an extra meal, it is subtracted from the total energy of the previous meal. In short, the energy of a day should be strictly limited to the standard range.
The third step is to formulate a one-day recipe according to the food exchange method
We need different nutrients every day to match food scientifically and reasonably, so that the proportion of nutrients is appropriate. These are ultimately reflected in food, which is to tell patients what food to eat at each meal and how much to eat. Simplified into a table and formulated the “Food Exchange Serving” method (Table 3-9). Any food that can produce 90 kilocalories is a “Food Exchange Serving”, and the calculated energy value is converted into the number of exchange replies.
Foods are divided into several categories according to their sources and nutrients, namely cereals, vegetables, meat, eggs, milk, oils, and fats. The content and proportion of nutrients in similar foods in food exchange are approximately the same. The main nutrients of cereal potatoes are carbohydrates and dietary fiber; the main nutrients of meat, egg and milk are protein and a small amount of fat; the main nutrients of oil and fat are fat; the main nutrients of vegetables and fruits are vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, Among them, fruits also contain a certain amount of carbohydrates. For diabetics, the amount of staple food should be reduced.
By looking up Table 2, you can easily convert the energy value into food exchange servings, and you can figure out how many servings each type of food needs and how much weight you need.
The above example patient one day recipe:
Breakfast: 250 ml bag of milk, one boiled egg, one bun, and a little cucumber
Lunch: a bowl of millet rice (millet + rice about 100 grams), fried three shreds (50 grams of lean pork, 20 grams of dried tofu, 100 grams of cabbage), shiitake mushrooms (15 grams of shiitake mushrooms, 200 grams of cabbage)
Dinner: rice with mixed beans (about 100 grams), braised crucian carp (75 grams of fish meat), fried cauliflower with tomatoes (one tomato, 150 grams of cauliflower).
15 grams of cooking oil throughout the day, salt <3 grams
Nutrition evaluation: total energy of 1425 kcal throughout the day, protein 65g (energy supply ratio accounts for 18%), fat 44g (energy supply ratio accounts for 28%), carbohydrate 192g (energy supply ratio accounts for 54%)
Precautions for using food exchange
After formulating a one-day recipe, you can exchange it among similar foods according to the patient’s eating habits and diet preferences, so that you can work out your own recipe! However, the following points should be noted when using food exchange:
1. Only foods of the same type can be exchanged: for example, meat can be replaced with fish, poultry, and soy products; vegetable oil can be replaced with nut foods; rape can be replaced with greens, cabbages, etc .; buns can be replaced with nests, bread, and rice Wait.
2. There is no exchange between different types of food: the nutrients contained in different types of food are different, even if the calories are the same, the nutritional balance cannot be achieved. For example, 50 grams of meat cannot be replaced by 50 grams of rice, and 50 grams of oranges cannot be replaced by 50 grams of peanuts.
3. Nutrients are interchangeable when they are similar in structure: for example, 20 peanuts can be interchanged with 10 grams of oil because they contain basically similar calories and fat.
4. Fruits and staple foods are interchangeable: fruits have a high sugar content, so it is not appropriate to exchange them with vegetables. You can exchange staple food with fruit, such as eating 1 serving of fruit (about 200 grams) and halving the two (25 grams) of staple food. (For example, 25 grams of staple food can be interchanged with 200 grams of apples, because they contain basically similar calories and carbohydrates.)